How accidents lead to bodily harm remains controversial. Previous studies recommended a predictor, Delta-V, to describe the consequences of accidents in terms of vehicle mass and impact speed in accidents. This study uses a new factor, Vehicle Injury Severity Based on Energy Loss (ELVIS), to explain the effects of energy absorption by two vehicles in a collision. This calibrated variable, equipped with regression-based and machine learning models, is compared to the widely used Delta V predictor. A multivariate ordered logistic regression with multiple classes is then estimated. The results are consistent with the observation that heavy vehicles are more likely to have inherent protection and rigid structures, particularly in the side-to-side direction, and therefore less impact.
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