The rebel Yale
The rebel cry was a battle cry that Confederate soldiers used during the American Civil War to intimidate the enemy and boost their own morale. The south had split off to protect its “peculiar institution” of slavery, which was increasingly besieged by powerful abolitionist forces.
While the founding fathers of the United States announced that all men were equal, this only applied to white men, sometimes to natives who were considered “civilized”, but not to blacks, the vast majority of whom were slaves. America was built on the exploitation of African slaves and created a race hierarchy and a system of bondage.
At that time, racism was mainstream and normalized. Slavery was essential to the cultivation of tobacco plantations created by English colonists in Virginia in the 17th century. But it was the colony of Massachusetts where the Mayflower brought the Pilgrims to in 1620 that became the first English settlement. Boston was founded here in 1630.
This is where Elihu Yale (1649 – 1721) was born, who settled in London with his family at the age of three. Yale joined the English East India Company and worked at St. George’s Fort in Madras in modern Chennai, where, according to the predatory standards of the time when he indulged in illegal profit, he was released from the post of governor. On July 26, 1687, he was reappointed President of the Administration of Fort St. George.
Now he benefited from the growing slave trade and passed a law that at least ten slaves should be transported to Europe on every ship. As a judge, he also sentenced so-called “black criminals” to flogging and enslavement. As demand grew rapidly, English merchants even began to kidnap small children and deport them to distant parts of the world.
The allegations of corruption against him continued until he was released from office in 1692. After Yale had amassed a large fortune from his time in India, he was contacted in 1718 by Puritan’s Minister Cotton Mather from New England, who was notorious for his involvement in the witch trials against Salem in 1692. This was to ask for a donation to an educational institution. Hence the foundation of Yale College, which became Yale University in 1887. It is still a respected Ivy League institution for the liberal arts.
From here, student Shreeya Singh, who completed a double degree in history and South Asian studies, started 2020 against Hindutva to fight “Hindu fascism”. The irony of it couldn’t be lost.
This hatred outfit fought against the CAA, which granted asylum to victims of religious persecution in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh who had fled to India to escape discrimination and violent conversion to Islam.
However, the rise of hate preachers like Shreeya Singh shouldn’t come as a surprise. In November 2019, researchers from UC Berkeley and Yale University suggested that Hindu “nationalism” could take root in the minds of Indian Hindu youth. Elihu Yale laughs in his grave.
The naturalization law of 1790 made Asians inadmissible for citizenship. This became apparent when a significant wave of Indian immigrants entered the United States in the late nineteenth century and settled mainly in the states of California, Oregon and Washington. Chinese migrant workers have encountered significant prejudice in the United States, particularly those who occupy the lower classes of white society, and Chinese “coolies” have been used by politicians and union leaders as a scapegoat for low wages.
These xenophobic fears of the alleged “yellow peril” led to the implementation of the Page Act of 1875, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which was expanded ten years later by the Geary Act. The Immigration Act of 1917 then created an “Asian Exclusion Zone”.
Indian immigrants ended up in this toxic environment. The majority of whites viewed these “Hindus” with contempt, similar to what they had done with larger waves of Chinese and Japanese immigrants, as well as the larger sedentary Chican and African-American populations.
In 1913, the California Alien Land Act prevented Asians from owning land. This was only changed in 1952. In the case of 1923 United States Bhagat Singh ThindThe Supreme Court ruled that Indians were not “white people” and were therefore racially out of the question for naturalized citizenship. Thind argued with “a number of anthropological texts” that people in northwest India belonged to the “Aryan race” and quoted scientific authorities such as the classification of the Aryans as Caucasians.
The court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the “big body of our people” would reject assimilation. Not only were new applicants from India denied naturalization privilege, but the new race classification also indicated retrospective revocation of naturalization certificates granted to Asian Indians.
America was a hotbed of racial intrigue, fantasy, and pseudo-science. The nation’s apparent fate meant the extermination of indigenous peoples and their demographic replacement by whites.
Until the 20th century, Indians were physically liquidated or forced into reservations and state boarding schools where they were prohibited from speaking their own languages, brainwashed from their beliefs, and subjected to sexual and physical abuse.
The wars against the indigenous Americans were overshadowed by the conflict over slavery, which led to the southern cession as a confederation. The Union lifted this in 1865. The civil war led to reconstruction in the south, which extended full rights to former slaves and suppressed the south-white opposition of the White League and the Ku Klux Klan.
However, federal support was withdrawn in 1877, which allowed the redeemer movement to push back civil rights and enforce white supremacy. Until well into the 20th century, the southern states enforced racial segregation, the disenfranchisement of blacks and the reinvention of slavery as peonage.
In his 2012 book Slavery under a different nameDouglas A Blackman describes Peonage, a giant trafficking machine involving law enforcement agencies that allows any African-American to be detained on a whim and then sold to private companies as a prison worker.
The offense can be as trivial as vagrants or laughter in public. Beating, rape, torture and death were common as this slavery was worse than the plantation variety. Peonage was not abolished until 1951 because mechanization had previously made this type of bondage superfluous.
In Spike Lee’s Mockumentary CSA: The Confederate States of AmericaThe south wins the civil war and Lincoln flees. Slavery continues with online auctions. The reality was no different. Jim Crow and other forms of segregation were also found outside of the south.
In the twentieth century, the Confederation’s “lost cause” was renovated and glorified. Confederate flags, utensils, chivalry, statues and monuments abounded in the south and to a lesser extent in other parts of the nation.
The “Negro” was considered a “problem” because revisionism created a mythology that African Americans were a burden on white America. The civil war was rewritten to refer to the rights of states rather than slavery. which itself was portrayed as a kind institution, even glorified in films Blown by the wind. Contempt for black life was celebrated. The South celebrated with the election of Woodrow Wilson as President in 1912, as one of her own sons had now become the most powerful man in the country. The segregation in federal employment was increased and southern racists dominated its administration.
The real cleansing
In the Purge film series and the Amazon Prime mini-series, an alternative future of dystopian America shows the reign of the new founding fathers who initiated the purge. This is a 12 hour period in which all offenses are legal, including murder. Law enforcement and rescue services sit back and allow citizens to kill each other with impunity. It quickly becomes clear that this is not a free market theory since the majority of people are not so psychopathic.
Therefore, the state itself is involved in the use of mercenaries, neo-Nazis and private paramilitaries who target ethnic minorities, homeless and impoverished people as extermination targets. If this nightmare sounds too far-fetched, the reality is that the actual cleanup took decades. It was called lynching.
Lynching became a necessary part of white supremacy. The police either stood by or participated in mob violence by racist whites. These crimes emphasized the new social order built under Jim Crow; Strengthening their collective white identity along with the unequal status of blacks. Less than one percent of Lynchmob participants have ever been convicted by local courts and rarely prosecuted or brought to justice. By the end of the 19th century, the trial juries in most of the southern United States were all white because African Americans had been disenfranchised and only registered voters could act as judges. Often, juries never let the matter go beyond the investigation. Lynching were family events with children who enjoyed the spectacle as a rite of passage.
The victims were usually broken up into pieces of human trophies for mob members. In his autobiography, WEB Du Bois writes about Sam Hose lynching in Georgia in 1899.
He reports that the victim’s ankles were on display in a local shop on Mitchell Street in Atlanta and that a piece of the man’s heart and liver had been given to the state governor. In 1916, seventeen-year-old Jesse Washington in Waco, Texas, was lynched after being dragged and neutered by the court.
Lynching attracted a large crowd, which was estimated to peak at 10,000 to 15,000, including Mayor John Dollins and chief of police Guy McNamara. There were also many children watching during their lunch break because the parents hoped that this would strengthen belief in the predominance of the whites.
Members of the mob cut his fingers and hung him over a campfire after saturating him with coal oil. It was repeated lowered and raised over the fire for about two hours. After the fire was extinguished, his charred torso was dragged through the city and parts of his body were sold as souvenirs and pictures of his body were sold on postcards.
In the 20th century, lynching was a photographic sport. People sent postcards with lynching that they had seen. Although the rhetoric surrounding lynchings often suggested that they should protect the virtue and security of white women, the actions arose largely from white attempts to maintain rule in a rapidly changing society and their fears of social change.
The south continually stopped attempts by the federal government to ban lynching. Indeed, leaders of the South, such as Benjamin Tillman, James Vardaman and Theodore Bilbo, defended lynching as necessary to keep the blacks in place. The
The Tuskegee Institute tabulated 4,743 people who died from US lynch mobs between 1881 and 1968. According to these figures, 3,446 (almost three quarters) of the Lynchmen were black Americans.
While blacks were mostly victims, the virus was able to spread to others. On March 14, 1891, eleven Italian immigrants were lynched in New Orleans for their alleged role in the murder of David Hennessy, an Irish police chief from New Orleans. Researchers estimate that 597 Mexicans were lynched between 1848 and 1928.
Between 1880 and 1930, Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 population, mostly in California, Arizona, and Texas. This statistic was second only to that of the African American community, which experienced an average of 37.1 per 100,000 population during this period.
On October 24, 1871, a crowd of around 500 whites and Latinos invaded Chinatown in Los Angeles, attacking, robbing and murdering Chinese residents. Other acts of violence against Chinese immigrants include the 1877 San Francisco Uprising, the Issaquah and Tacoma Uprising in 1885, the attack on Chinese workers in the Squak Valley in 1885, the Seattle Uprising in 1886 and the racial unrest on the Pacific coast in 1907. 1915 The Jewish factory owner Leo Frank was lynched in Atlanta for allegedly raping and murdering his own staff, Mary Phagan.
Thousands of African Americans left the south in the early 20th century. But even in northern cities they were separated and subjected to mob violence. The Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties in the United States as a result of racial unrest in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago 1919 Racial Unrest and the 1919 Omaha Racial Unrest. Chicago was the most vicious white gang, mostly Irish , invaded black areas and searched for victims. The police turned a blind eye or participated.
A revived Ku Klux Klan had nationwide reach and acceptance in the mainstream. The first feature film, The birth of a nation (1915), who celebrated the original Ku Klux Klan, was shown to President Wilson and his cabinet members in the White House. The future president, Harry Truman, even became a member once.
Mississippi’s Theodore Bilbo and other political leaders were also in the clan. Racial riots of whites escalated to pure campaigns of localized genocide. On November 2, 1920, the entire black population of Ocee in Florida was either massacred or displaced.
Between May 31 and June 1, 1921, Tulsa in Oklahoma experienced the destruction of his Greenwood or Black Wall Street ghetto. They had founded their own shops and services in this enclave, including several grocers, two newspapers, two cinemas, night clubs and numerous churches. Black professionals served, including doctors, dentists, lawyers, and clergymen their peers. With police collaborators, white residents went so far as to destroy Greenwood by plane and massacre its residents, while blacks tried in vain to ward off the attack. In 1923 the black city of Rosewood in Florida was destroyed and survivors fled to the swamps.
These were just a few of the more extreme events that went beyond mere riots. It was these blatant racial extermination and oppression cases that led to African-American social problems. Indeed, former slaves had made incredible progress in rebuilding after slavery.
However, this was neutralized as black people across the country were considered slightly less than human. In the Midwest and West, many cities warned of sunset and threatened to kill African Americans who stayed overnight. These “sundown” cities also drove African Americans who had settled in these cities during the reconstruction and earlier. In parts of the west, this has been extended to include Latinos, Chinese, Japanese, and Native Americans.
American Aryan fate
Violence and legal restrictions often prevented whites from working as ordinary workers, much less as skilled craftsmen or in professions. In such conditions, even the most ambitious and talented blacks found it extremely difficult to move forward.
This led to the racial fantasy that whites were superior to what was mainstream among writers such as Maddison Grant, Lothrop Stoddard and Ernest Sevier Cox. This helped to limit immigration to superior Nordic types. Faced with such a wall of indifference and hostility, all blacks formed their own version of separatism. Marcus Garvey said that African Americans would have no place in a white country and should leave for Africa. He himself was deported for abuse of funds and returned to his home country of Jamaica.
The fallout merged with other organizations, particularly the Nation of Islam, which was founded by Farad Muhammad in the 1930s and taken over by Elijah Muhammad. As late as 1946, Theodore Bilbo, Senator and former Mississippi governor, urged that all blacks be deported to Liberia and wrote in support of Garvey’s plan. It wasn’t until 1949 that Phi Delta Phi, the brotherhood of Yale University’s law school, voted to remove a clause from its constitution that restricted membership to “Aryan men”. Aryan was not a unique category in Hitler’s Germany at the time. Now it remains in the liberal arts, in departments that study South Asia, like a disease for which the vaccine is intentionally withheld.
What has helped anchor democracy in America has been a high percentage of land ownership. However, like in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, this was only possible because a huge piece of wilderness was available due to the expropriation of the indigenous people.
Thomas Jefferson spoke of the need to “eliminate” or “exterminate” Indians. Hitler praised the American restrictions on naturalization and saw the extermination of the natives as a model for his habitat (Habitat) in Poland and the East, where Slavs would be kept in reserve to serve the Aryan master race. America was also a pioneer in eugenics. Those who were considered unsuitable were forcibly sterilized. the poor, the disabled, the mentally ill, and certain communities of African American, Hispanic, or Indian.
By 1933, California had violently sterilized more people than all other states combined. The forced sterilization program developed by the Nazis was partly inspired by California.
The Rockefeller Foundation helped develop and fund various German eugenics programs. including the one where Josef Mengele worked before going to Auschwitz. The one-drop rule of defining someone with African blood as black preceded the Nuremberg race laws. Between 1932 and 1972, the United States Public Health Service deliberately infected African American men with syphilis and was specifically selected based on the notion that blacks were inferior. The Nazis had a ready-made template in the country they despised so often because it was too black and too Jewish for them.
Beyond black and white
In 1994 the brothers James Ronald and Walter Donald Kennedy wrote The south was right!. Obviously, the title suggests that they want to exonerate the Confederation because it is the evil being that enslaved blacks. But the Kennedys bring out some interesting details, especially one that is used a lot, and the war was about state rights, not slavery.
It is a fact, however, that the more industrial north had become rich in slavery, especially the cotton harvested on plantations. The Yankee’s economic interests prevented the south from exterminating slavery.
Because blacks had economic value as slaves, the slave-free states in the north treated them worse because whites feared competition from labor. Oregon, Illinois, New Jersey and Massachusetts have passed laws to prohibit the settlement of black people. In addition, Lincoln’s emancipation only applied to the Confederation. not the slave states that remained in the Union. As a result, the general of the Union, Ulysses S Grant, who later became president, continued to have slaves.
Lincoln himself was racist and wanted freed slaves to begin their own exodus, preferably to Africa, since they could never be equal to the whites. In 1862, 39 Native American prisoners were executed after being outraged in Minnesota.
Black slaves did not rise against the Confederation, and many fought with their masters in the south. Union troops, meanwhile, have not always been seen as liberators because they looted farms and raped the slaves on them, as in Athens, Alabama. Slaves were also forced to serve invading Union armies. Native Americans, particularly the Cherokee, also fought for the south. The dominant narrative does not mention that Cherokee not only owned slaves, but free blacks in the south also had other blacks.
Of course, most of the blacks who fought for the south were forced laborers who supported supply lines and other logistical areas. It was only when the South lost that the idea was discussed and the irony was not lost. But the Kennedys show that the north was far from the strength of undiluted liberation.
This was most evident in politics. The Republican Party had joined forces against anti-slavery forces. From 1830, blacks, including slaves, were driven out of the craft like tanners and tailors due to the hostility of the whites and the unions that founded them. From the 1840s, Irish immigrants increasingly pushed blacks out of these professions.
The Irish themselves were sometimes viewed worse than the blacks. In the south they were treated worse than slaves because they were considered cheaper. Nevertheless, the Irish were wooed by political forces opposed to nativism, which opposed the slander against these Catholic immigrants. This has been replaced by a stronger racial identity than “white”. Led by southern slave owners and planters, these forces manifested in the Democratic Party.
In American politics, not only is the system divided between Democrats and Republicans, but also various terms that are used as derogatory rather than exact terms. Opponents on the left in the Democrats are fascists, capitalist racists and much more. The conservative forces have found their home with the Republicans and include strict immigration, strong law and order as well as liberal ideas such as abortion, climate change and state health care.
But when the civil war broke out, the Republicans were largely abolitionist and the Democrats supported slavery. Reconstruction was forced on the south by radical republicans like Thaddeus Stevens, who wanted to give former slaves full rights. As the leader of the Republicans, Lincoln had completely abolished slavery. The racist White League, Ku Klux Klan, red shirts and redeemer were all Democrats. In the south, the Republicans were seen as a party of African Americans and white carpet-baggers and scallywags.
The Democrats represented white supremacy. Wilson, Truman, Vardaman and Tillman Bilbo were all Democrats. The Republicans were completely overshadowed in the south and needed African-American support. This only changed with FD Roosevelt and his social programs, which benefited the blacks, even if they tried to exclude them by exempting certain low jobs such as farm workers from the regulations. The Ku Klux Klan dominated the Democrats in the south well into the 1960s. Now the party has its origins in slavery and white domination and supports civil rights and radical street protests against a Republican president whose party emerged from the abolition movement.
Symbols of hatred
During the reconstruction, the Republicans took control of all of the southern state’s governorates and laws, with the exception of Virginia, and elected many African Americans to local, state, and national offices. The blacks in the south formed a core element of the Republican Party, including Hiram Revels, who served as the first African American in the US Congress when he was elected as a Republican in the United States Senate to represent Mississippi. In 1874, Blanche Bruce was elected to the US Senate, the second African American to serve in the upper house of Congress. On February 14, 1879, Bruce presided over the U.S. Senate and was the first African American (and the only former slave) to do so.He was also a Republican.
Such gains were swept away when the Democrats regained control after the reconstruction and reintroduced white supremacy. With disenfranchised, oppressed and revived slaves under peonage. With the growing movement to remove Confederate monuments, it is often forgotten how new these Lee and Davis statues were and that they were installed to impose a certain racist narrative. Supporters say this is just pride in the south. However, the fact remains that they were part of the process by which blacks could no longer enjoy full democratic rights in the south and therefore did not even correspond to actual history.
Ironically, this is also the case with the left in America. Shreeya Singh embodies this phenomenon as well as hatred of the hopeful democratic President Tulsi Gabbard in what is now known as the crass Hindu hobia. Instead, the left hoped for Bernie Sanders, who is considered almost Marxist by many Conservatives and Republicans.
Like Andrew Jackson, the Mississippi slave owner around whom the Democratic Party was formed, Sanders represents a modern mix of reforms and prejudices. Jackson has been supported by working class whites and Irish immigrants by expanding the franchise to all white men.
But he was also instrumental in the ethnic cleansing of Native Americans through forced relocations and support for slavery. Similarly, Sanders supported major reforms such as government medical care. However, he combined this with the support of Pakistan and his jihad against India, as he was as insensitive to ethnic cleansing and the Hindus massacre as his predecessor Andrew Jackson was to Cherokee and other indigenous people. Liberal institutions like Yale and Harvard, the best universities in the Ivy League, continue to teach the Aryan invasion of India as a fact.
Not only does this fuel the flames of anti-Hindu hatred that Shreeya Singh uses so violently, it is also the legacy of a much older and toxic period when America was seen as a country for whites. All others had to be subordinated or exterminated. This invasion theory is more than the Confederate flag. It is the real hatred in America that needs to be combated.
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