There are two types of sadaqah, namely optional sadaqah and mandatory sadaqah. In the optional Sadaqah, a person gives free money to a good cause and hopes for a reward from Allah Ta’ālā. This type of sadaqah can be given to the masjid. The second type of sadaqah is mandatory, be it through the initial dictation of the Sharī’ah such as Zakat and Sadaqat al-Fitr (Fitra) or by a person who makes it binding and mandatory, such as taking a vow, kafārah, etc Any type of sadaqah that is mandatory for a person must be given in the same ways that a person would give for zakat, ie poor and needy; Therefore the Masjid cannot be given.
What is Zakat?
Zakat is mandatory on a Sahib Al-Nisab. A sahib al-nisab is one who owns the zakat nisab (a required amount of money or assets that qualifies a person responsible for the discharge of zakat). A person who has this amount of cash / assets for a whole year spends two and a half percent of their total amount in Zakat.
The standard natab of Zakat is two hundred dirham (silver coins), which corresponds to 612.35 grams of silver or twenty Mithqal gold, which corresponds to 87.479 grams of gold or any currency that corresponds to the value of this amount of gold and silver. If this amount of wealth remains in the possession of a person for a whole year, it will be Wajib after the end of that year to give Zakat two and a half percent of the total. If his wealth is less than 612.35 grams of silver or 87.479 grams of gold or the equivalent in currency, Zakat will not be a wajib for him. (Baheshti Zewar, Vol. 1, p. 297, Zam Zam)
Zakat is mandatory for cash, assets, etc. held by a person for one year. However, if a person may have liabilities for their cash, etc. that they do not qualify as Sahib Al-Nisab when calculated, they are not required to fire Zakat in such a case.
Read also: 5 reasons why a Muslim pays Zakat / Zakah
What is Sadaqa tul Fitr?
Fitrah is a form of charity granted to the poor at the end of Ramadan. It is due for every member of a household, including all children or the elderly, and must be paid before Eid Salah Sadaqat al-Fitr after the Hanafi Mazhab is that you could either spend ½ sa ’ (صاع) Wheat or 1 sa dates, barley or raisins. It is also permissible to state the predominant value of one of the above in cash. Sadaqatul Fitr is half a Saa (1.75 kg to 2.32 kg) of wheat or 3.2 kg of barley (or its cash equivalent), which is the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr in your country
What is Fidya?
You have to pay Fidyah if you cannot fast because of old age or chronic illness. You can’t pay Fidyah if you have the ability to fast. If you have recovered from your illness so much that you can fast again during / after Ramadhan, you should make up for all previous fasts.
The Fidya of each fast is half a Saa (1.75 kg to 2.32 kg) or 3.2 kg of barley (or its money equivalent), which is the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr in your country.ref)
Importance of giving Zakah in hadith and more information about Zakat
Hadith Mubarakah –
When told about Abu Huraira, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) reported that he said: If a gold or silver owner does not pay what he is entitled to, when the day of resurrection comes, fireplaces will be struck for him; These would then be heated in the fire of hell and their sides, forehead and back would be cauterized with them. Whenever these cool down, the process is repeated over a day
Sahih Muslim – (Book No. 005, Hadith No. 2161)
Narrated by Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said: “Anyone to whom Allah has given wealth but who does not pay his zakat will be presented with his wealth in the form of a bald-headed venomous male snake with two venomous glands in his mouth, and it will lie around its neck and bite it on its cheeks and say: “I am your wealth; I am your darling. ”
Sahih Bukhari – (Book No. 60, Hadith No. 88)
There are 8 conditions under which Zakah Fardh is, 5 with the person and 3 with the wealth.
- The person should be a Muslim – Zakah is not due to the wealth of an unbeliever living in a Muslim area, Mukatib, but she pays Jizya, a protection tax. This is a condition because Zakat is an act of worship and such worship cannot be performed by a Kafir.
- Free and not a slave – otherwise exclusive property cannot be used.
- Maturity, not imposed on a minor
- Reason – According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Zakah cannot be traced back to minors who have no understanding or are mentally ill. However, Imam Shafi and Imam Ahmed rah believe that it should be paid for by their parents or legal guardians. Disagreements in Baligh and Aqil.
- Ownership of assets cannot have debts (which exceed assets).
- Complete ownership of the wealth
- A year has passed.
- Nisab, or a minimal set of things that are productive and profitable, such as grazing cattle, grain, gold, silver, or goods or businesses.
8 recipients of Zakah: “Who can you give Zakah to?
Zakat can be paid to deserving individuals or groups that fall into one or more of eight zakatbare categories set by God in the Koran.
Indeed, [prescribed] There are only charities [to be given] to the poor and needy and to those who work on it [administering] it and to those whose hearts are to be reconciled and to [free] those who are in bondage to the guilty and for the cause of God and to the wanderer. [This is] an obligation from God. And God is omniscient and omnipotent. – Al-Tawbah, 9:60
So you can give Zakat to people who qualify in one of these categories.
1. The poor (al-fuqarâ ’), which means low income or needy.
2. The needy (al-masâkîn), ie someone who is in trouble.
3. Zakat administrators.
4. Those whose hearts are to be reconciled, ie new Muslims and friends of the Muslim community.
5. Those in bondage (slaves and prisoners.
6. The debt.
7. For the cause of God.
8. The hiker, ie those who are stranded or travel with few resources.
Who has to pay Sadaqatul Fitr:
Sadaqat al-Fitr’s decisions are usually found in the Zakat chapter in the works of lawyers. However, after it was found that many people are unfamiliar with Sadaqat al-Fitr and the right of the poor to receive it, its details are included in this article.
Sadaqat al-Fitr is a necessary charity on Eid al-Fitr given to the same poor people who are allowed to receive Zakat.
The companion Abdullah ibn Umar and his father Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah rejoices in both) report that “… the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) committed the payment of Zakat al-Fitr in Ramadan (with) one Sa ‘of dates or Sa’ of barley on every free person and slave, whether male or female, by the Muslims. ” [Bukhari; Muslim]
How do you pay for Sadaqat al-Fitr?
The one who has to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr does one of the following:
a) half a Sa * wheat or similar food grains,
b) a full amount of dates, barley, raisins or similar food grains,
c) or the equivalent monetary value of a or b.
The actual decision by Sadaqat al-Fitr after the Hanafi Mazhab is that you could either spend ½ sa ’ (صاع) Wheat or 1 sa dates, barley or raisins. It is also permissible to state the predominant value of one of the above in cash. If someone wants to spend anything other than the above items, they must spend an amount equal to the value of the above. For example, if you want to spend rice, you should spend rice that corresponds to the value of ½ sa ’wheat, etc.
وهي نصف صاع من بر أو دقيقه أو سويقه ، أو صاع تمر أو زبيب ، أو شعير
(Maraqi al-Falah Ma’a Hashiyat al-Tahtawi p. 724 – Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah)
Who has to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr?
Sadaqat al-Fitr is necessary (Wajib) for:
* Every free Muslim, regardless of whether he is male, female, adult, childlike, healthy or not healthy.
* who owns the zakatable minimum (Nisab) in any form of wealth,
* beyond their immediate needs and debts,
* Eid al-Fitr arrives in the morning (i.e. when entering Fajr),
* regardless of whether a full lunar year has passed through this wealth or not.
For Sadaqat al-Fitr, the zakatable minimum (nisab) is the same as the annual zakat, which is 612 grams of silver or 87.48 grams of gold or their equivalent monetary value. For Sadaqat al-Fitr, however, the nisab is calculated according to any form of wealth that one has beyond his basic needs and immediate debts.
How does the calculation of the Nisab of Sadaqat al-Fitr differ from the annual Zakat?
The calculation of the Nisab by Sadaqat al-Fitr differs from the calculation of the annual Zakat. In the annual zakat, one must own the nisab through certain forms of wealth (such as gold, silver, cash, cattle, or commodities) that go beyond basic needs, and a lunar year passes on this wealth.
Sadaqat al-Fitr calculates the Nisab based on any form of wealth that goes beyond basic needs and immediate debt, regardless of whether or not a lunar year has passed through that wealth. When this excess wealth reaches the Nisab in the morning from Eid al-Fitr (i.e. entry of Fajr), it is necessary (Wajib) to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr. It is quite possible that someone does not have to pay the annual Zakat, but at the same time has to pay the Sadaqat al-Fitr.
For example, someone who does not have zakat items in their possession, such as cash or merchandise, does not have to pay zakat. However, the same person has other assets that correspond to the value of the Nisab, and these assets exceed their personal needs, e.g. B. an excess car, excess TV, or excess computer. In this case, he does not pay the annual Zakat, but Sadaqat al-Fitr.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]
When to pay for Sadaqat al-Fitr?
It becomes necessary (wajib) to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr when Fajr enters Eid al-Fitr (1st of Shawwal).
It is recommended to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr after entering Fajr before going to the Eid prayer area.
It is valid to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr before or after Fajr enters Eid al-Fitr.
And Allah knows best.
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