وعن أبي هريرة ا الله عنه, قال: قال رسول الله ﷺ “قال الله عز وجل:) ا كان يوم صوم أحدكم فلا يرفث () ولا يصخب, فإن سابه أحد أو قاتله, فليقل: إني صائم. ) الذي نفس محمد خ لخلوف () فم الصائم أطيبُ ا لله من ريح المسك. للصائم فرحتان يفرحهما: إذا أفطر فرح بفطره ، وإذا لقيَ ربهُ فرح بصومه ”متفقٌ عليه ().
Abū-Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah said:
“Allah the Exalted and Majestic said:” Every act of the Son of Adam is for him except fasting, which is (exclusively) for me, and I reward it for it. “Fasting is a shield. If one of you is too fast, you should neither indulge in an obscene language nor speak your voice. And if someone insults him or tries to argue with him, let him say:” I fast “Through Him, in whose hand is the soul of Muḥammad, the breath of fasting is finer for Allah than the scent of musk. The one who fasts experiences two joys: He enjoys breaking his fast, and when he is his If he meets Lord, his Lord will be satisfied with him because of his fasting. ” [Al-Bukhārī and Muslim]
This hadith deals with three topics: the special position of fasting in services, what behavior one should adopt when dealing with others when fasting and the special virtues of fasting. The commentator will break down the hadith to develop the meanings contained in the hadith.
“Abū-Hurayra (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah said: Allah the Exalted and Majestic said:” Every action of the son of Adam is for him, except the fasting, which is (exclusively) for me. “
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This ḥadīth is part of the aḥādīth qudsiyya, d. H. Where the Nabī ﷺ comes from Allah. Al-Khaṭṭābī explains:
It means that he participates in and interferes with every act of the son of Adam. This is because others are becoming aware of it, and this becomes an incentive, among other things, to receive an early reward from people through their laudation and recognition.
As far as fasting is concerned, no one is certain to be made aware of it except Allah, and the ego has no part in it. It actually breaks the ego. The body is also at a loss as it is forced to patiently endure a burning thirst and the agony of hunger.
Al-Khaṭṭābī also explains: This means that fasting is a pure act of worship that cannot be undertaken by showing and showing, because it is an act of virtue that no one but Allah knows about. This is in line with what was said in ḥadīth: “The believer’s purpose is more valuable than his actions”. Because the intent is in the heart and as such no one but Allah knows about it, an intention without action is more valuable than an act without intention. This is similar to the meaning in the verse
﴾لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ﴿
“The night of Qadr is much better than a thousand months,” H. It is better than a thousand months in which there is no Laylatul Qadr.
Another meaning put forward is that refraining from eating and drinking is one of the attributes of Allah Taʿālā. He feeds but is not fed. It is as if he says: The person who is fasting seeks my closeness through an action that is linked to one of my attributes – needlessness. There is no equivalent to Allah’s attributes, it is just a comparison.
It is also said that this is supposed to confer honor for a cause, as one would say: the Prophet of Allah, the House of Allah or the Camel of Allah. Fasting is for Allah. One thing is honored because we know that it belongs to Allah, the Lord of Majesty and Honor.
There are also other explanations that are presented below.
“And I reward you for it”
This means that the reward is multiplied by an unspecified and innumerable number. This is because when the Generous (Al-Karīm) commits to distribute something, it undoubtedly brings with it abundance.
“Fasting is a shield”
It is armor. It serves as protection against the fire of hell or disobedience, just as armor protects against arrows. This is because it breaks basic desires and weakens one’s strength against sin.
Translator’s note: It can be said that this also weakens strength against the good. Although this would be inaccurate because every second that passes while a Muslim is fasting they are rewarded for their obedience and if they died while fasting they would die in a state of obedience and they would die in a state of obedience , then it is a sign of Allah’s pleasure and mercy for which there is only Janna and great reward.
[Imām] Aḥmad added in his story: “And effective protection against fire”. Al-Nasāʾī adds: “As one of you, he would protect himself in battle”. Aḥmad adds another story: “As long as you don’t break it”.
[Qāḍī Abū-Bakr] Ibn Al-ʿArabī explains: It is a shield against fire because it is a reluctance to the basic needs that surround the fire of hell.
“If one of you is too fast, you shouldn’t indulge in an obscene language or speak out. and if someone insults him or tries to argue with him, let him say, “I’m fasting.”
One should neither speak indecently nor speak excessively loudly.
When someone argues or argues with him, “let him say” means that one should think in his heart: “I fast” so that he can abstain from such a dispute. It is also said that the words “I fast” should actually be spoken so that the person concerned can withdraw. However, this last mention is only made if the person who speaks these words feels safe from pretentiousness [riyāʾ] or the like of it. It is also said that you should actually do both so that your speech can cause the other person to refrain from arguments and make his heart do the same. It is important to note that this guide is not specific to a person who is fasting, but is nevertheless reinforced for them.
“Through Him, in whose hand is the soul of Muḥammad, the breath of fasting is purer / finer for Allah than the scent of musk.”
The hand of Allah means His power here. The Nabī ﷺ vowed to emphasize his statement, and the ʿulamāʾ considered this evidence desirable to draw the listener’s attention to an important matter.
Breathing means the undesirable smell caused by fasting. This is understood from the ḥadīth “My umma gave five things in Ramaḍān … and the second is that in the afternoon her breath is finer than the smell of musk”. This same ḥadīth is also used as evidence that it is the breath in this world that is meant, as explained by Ibn-Ṣalāḥ and the majority of the ʿulamāʾ.
The mention of musk is the subject of different interpretations from the ʿulamāʾ:
- Al-Māzirī explains: It is a metaphor to describe how close fasting comes to Allah-Taʿālā, since it is common for us to have pleasant smells nearby. Fasting is therefore compared to musk for the same reason, because it brings you close to Allah. In other words, it is purer in the eyes of Allah than musk in your eyes. It brings you closer to Allah than you would bring musk near you. Ibn ʿAbdul-Barr preferred this interpretation.
- It is also said: It means that what you think about the smell and how it is of Allah from musk contradicts your view as human beings. This interpretation is very similar to the previous one.
It is also said: The meaning is that Allah will reward fasting in the hereafter and the smell of their breath will be finer than that of musk, as mentioned below: “And the smell of his wound will dispel musk”.
- It is also said: The meaning is that the person receives a reward superior to the smell of musk, especially compared to the smell of their own breath. These last two interpretations were used by Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ.
- Al-Dāwūdī and a group of ʿulamāʾ have said the following: It means that the smell of breadth has more reward than musk, which is considered commendable in Jumuʿa and in gatherings commemorating Allah. Imām Al-Nawawī supported this interpretation.
The crux of the matter is that the meaning of perfume is to be understood as a metaphor, which means acceptance and satisfaction from Allah, since the feeling of smell in connection with the being of Allah is inconceivable.
Al-Qāḍī Ḥusayn has said that on the day of judgment, acts of obedience will spread a smell and the smell of fasting among those actions will be that of musk.
“The one who fasts has two joys: he enjoys breaking his fast, and when he meets his master, he is happy because of his fasting.”
The first pleasure is to end your fast without defacing it. It can also refer to the pleasure that comes from eating in the ifṭār.
The second pleasure is to meet his master or see his fasting reward. In both cases, his pleasure lies in accepting his fasting.
This ḥadīth was told by both Al-Bukhārī and Muslims in the chapter on fasting. It was also told by Al-Nasāʾī in his Sunan with the same chapter heading.
وهذا لفظ رواية البخاري. وفي رواية له: “يتركُ طعامهُ ، وشرابهُ ، وشهوتهُ ، من أجلي ، الصيامُ لي وأنا أجزي به ، والحسنةُ بعشر أمثل.
وفي روايةٍ لمسلم: “كل عمل ابن آدم يُضاعفُ: الحسنة بعشر أمثالها إلى سبعمائة ضعف. قال الله تعالى: “إلا الصوم فإنه لي وأنا أجزي به: يَدَعُ شهوتهُ وطعامهُ من أجلي. للصائم فرحتان: فرحةٌ عند عند ، وفرحةٌ ق لقاء ربه. ولخلوفُ فيه أطيبُ ا الله من ريح المسك ”.
Imam Nawawi has included these additional narratives due to their merit in their different formulations. Although there is some overlap with the previous narrative, there is a valuable addition to quantifying the fasting reward.
In another story by Al-Bukhārī, the Messenger of Allah said:
“Allah says:” (The person who fasts) has given up eating and drinking and lust for my sake. Fasting is for me and I will give his wages. Every good deed has a tenfold reward. “
In a story told by Muslims, the Messenger of Allah said:
“Every good deed by the son of Dam is multiplied ten to seven hundred times. Allah (SWT) says: “Except fasting, as it is certainly for me and I alone will give his reward. The fasting man renounces his lust and food for my sake. “The fasting person has two delights, one at the time of breaking the fast and the other at the time of meeting his master. Certainly the breath of the person who is fasting is finer for Allah than the scent of musk. “
“In another story by Al-Bukhārī the Messenger of Allah said:”
This story comes from Abū-Hurayra and is also a ḥadīth qudsī.
“Allah says:” (The person who fasts) has given up eating and drinking and lust for my sake. Fasting is for me and I will give his wages. “
Pleasure means intercourse and everything before it that breaks the fast.
“Every good deed has ten times its reward”
This is the lowest level of reward multiplication.
“In a story told by Muslims, the Messenger of Allah said”
This story is told by Abū-Hurayra, but unlike the previous ḥadīth, its wording is for the Nabī ﷺ marfuʿ instead of being a ḥadīth qudsī.
“Every good deed by the son of Dam is multiplied ten to seven hundred times. ”
The external meaning of the ḥadīth is that the action itself is multiplied [i.e the action will be recorded as having been performed several times] and it is also said that it is the reward for the action that is multiplied.
Allah-Taʿālā says: ﴾مَثَ ُ ُ ا َهُمْThe example of those who spend in the way of Allah is like a grain that produces seven ears, each ear has a hundred grains, and Allah multiplies (the reward) for which He wants. Allah is all-encompassing, all-knowing”(Al-Baqarah, verse 261).
“Allah (SWT) says: Besides fasting, as it is certainly for me and I alone will give his reward.”
Fasting is not described as a reward that is multiplied by a certain number. It is similar with regard to the patience about which Allah-Taʿālā says: “Surely those who observe patience will receive their reward in full without measure” (Al-Zumar, verse 10).
“The person who fasts renounces his desire and food for my sake.”
Lust means everything the ego tends to. Eating here means everything that is nutritious, so drinking is included.
Because of me means because of me.
The fasting person has two happy occasions, one at the time of breaking the fast and one at the time of meeting his master. Surely the breath of the person who is fasting is purer / finer for Allah than the scent of musk. “
The first joy is due to the fact that he has completed his service. The second joy is to meet your Lord and see the fullness of His reward.
Certainly it is used here for emphasis because it is so far-fetched that the smell of the breath is pleasant when you consider how repulsive people find it. The change in breath due to fasting that occurs in the afternoon is meant here. This is because what changes in breath in the first part of the day is reduced by what you eat in Su desūr [the meal prior to dawn].
The rest of this part of the īadīth has been explained earlier.
Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting with a short biography of Imam Al-Nawawi
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