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In-service needs of agricultural science teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria : Nigerian Education

Download the full project materials on the needs of agricultural science teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria from chapters one through five with references and summary


The aim of this study was to determine the needs of teachers for agricultural sciences at upper secondary level in animal science lessons. The population was made up of all agricultural science teachers (47 teachers) in the Enugu North Local Government region.

The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire created by the researcher and validated by three experts from the Enugu State College of Education (Technical), Enugu. Three research questions were asked for the study, and the tool was structured on a four-point opinion scale, in which opinions strongly agree, agree, disagree, and disagree at all. Means were used to analyze the data so collected.

The results of the study showed that agricultural science teachers should be trained in animal science components. The government should fund schools so that they can build an animal farm. Training for agricultural science teachers should be organized to update their knowledge in the field of animal science and that agricultural science teachers should be adequately motivated. Some recommendations were made based on the results.


title page

admission page





Table of Contents

List of tables


1.1 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Explanation of the problem

1.3 Purpose of the study

1.4 Significance of the study

1.5 Scope of the study

1.6 Limitation of the study

1.7 Research question


2.0 Review of related literature

2.1 Animal science concept and component

2.2 Need for further training

2.3 The different operating modes

2.4 The motivational factors that trigger part-time training

2.5 Summary of the literature review


3.0 Research methodology

3.1 Research design

3.2 Study area

3.3 Population of the study

3.4 Description of the data acquisition instrument

3.5 Validation of the instrument

3.6 Reliability of the instrument

3.7 Management of the instrument

3.8 Data analysis techniques


4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Summary of results


5.0 Discussion of the result

5.1 Pedagogical implication of the study

5.2 Recommendation

5.3 conclusion

5.4 Suggestion for further research




Agriculture as defined in the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 6th Edition is the science or practice of agriculture. It is art, science and industry to cultivate the land to grow crops, breed animals and prepare plants and animal products for human use.

Before the story was recorded, humans had to rely on wild animals for food, clothing, shelter and transportation. Due to the growing human population, the demand for food and animal protein had put pressure on the supply of natural resources, which was fluctuating, troublesome and expensive. Therefore, humans had gone a little further with the transition of society from hunting to pasture farming and cultivation. Certain animal species have been domesticated in areas that do not correspond to their natural habitat.

These farm animals are exhaustible but renewable. However, their renewability depends on the management level chosen. For this reason, it is necessary to learn the scientific techniques required to conserve and improve these resources in a way that maximizes the yield and is useful for humanity.

Agriculture is one of the core subjects in the secondary schools of the junior and senior schools of the Nigerian 6: 3: 3: 4 education program (ONWUEGBUNAM 1993). Agricultural science classes cover the following areas:

  1. Animal science / production
  2. plant sciences
  3. soil Science
  4. Agricultural enlargement and
  5. Agricultural economics.

Animal sciences include the production and management of many different types of domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fisheries and many others for human consumption.

According to the WAEC regulation (2002), schools that present candidates for the exams should include, in addition to a school farm where students should be trained in the art of growing different crops, the following animals such as cattle, sheep and goats, fish and Keep rabbits, pigs or poultry. This ensures that students are able to understand the skills and management techniques of animal production.

In order to improve the animal protein requirements of the Nigerian population, the Nigerian federal government is endeavoring to increase animal protein production. In addition to encouraging ministries of agriculture at both state and local levels to set up a livestock unit, National Education Policy (1998) has focused on teaching agriculture in secondary schools.

The objectives of teaching and learning in agriculture in secondary schools include the revised agricultural science curriculum for JSS and SSS 1998; To stimulate and promote the students’ interest in basic knowledge and practical skills in agriculture, preparation for further studies and a job in agriculture. In order to achieve the goals of agriculture in secondary schools, agricultural science is taught as a single subject, although it is divided into the following units:

UNIT I – Soil Science

UNIT II – Plant Production

UNIT III – Animal Production

UNIT IV – Agricultural Engineering

UNIT V – Agricultural Economics and Enlargement

In Unit III, which is animal production, WAEC stated that the practical and theoretical approach should be used to convey the topic. To this end, the WAEC curriculum (1998-2000) provided that at least one type of animal from each of the following two groups should be used in schools where plants are grown; Pigs, rabbits and poultry or goats, sheep, cattle and possibly fish ponds.

In animal production, students should address the following topics included in the WAEC agricultural science curriculum mentioned above.

  • Identification of parts and important organs of farm animals, e.g. Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, rabbits, etc.
  • Functions of some organs of the skin, feathers, liver, kidneys, lungs, etc. of farm animals
  • Digestive system, difference between the digestive system of monogastric and ruminant animals.
  • Circulatory system reproductive system and nervous system.
  • Explanation of the following process in animal production: oestrus cycle, heat period, mating, birth, lactation and colostrum, gestation period, ovulation and artificial insemination.
  • The process of egg formation in poultry
  • Reproductive hormones and their function
  • Livestock farming; Keeping, feeding and hygiene of at least one monogastric animal.

Students are expected to complete the following practical exercises, which are approved in the WAEC Agricultural Science Curriculum (1998-2000) as follows:

Identification of

  • Common animal breeds and species available locally.
  • Important internal organs of farm animals
  • Animal feed and feed and their local sources
  • Main parts and parasites of farm animals
  • Diseases of farm animals to prevent and control them
  • Routine management practices in farm animals
  • Fish harvest and prevention.

The above requirements make teaching animal science as part of the agricultural science program in secondary school very demanding for teachers.

According to the West African Examination Council (2008) report, students performed well in other units except for animal science. By way of illustration, the 1986 report showed that most of the candidates correctly identified the digestive system of ruminants and non-ruminants, but could not label the parts that were not labeled.

A – esophagus / esophagus

B – Rumen

C – reticulum

D – granny

E – Obamasium

F – duodenum

G – ileum

H – colon

I – rectum

J – stomach

The candidates were also poor at identifying specimens derived from animal products, probably due to the methods used to impart the knowledge or because the teachers were not well equipped.

Ikezue (1983) remarked as follows on criticizing the methods used in teaching the animal science component of agriculture at secondary level: β€œIt is discouraging to see that a fifth grade student (SS II) cannot identify some breeds of goats very well. Sheep, cattle and poultry because they learn them theoretically without seeing them physically. β€œHe believed that if secondary school science was to make sense, the government should help the school provide animal farms where students could learn more about animal production.

To achieve this, it is necessary to train animal breeding teachers in advanced training so that they are better equipped for the profession of specialist teacher. These enable agricultural science teachers to influence students’ knowledge and update their knowledge of the animal science component.

As a result, it is necessary to examine the needs of agricultural science teachers in secondary schools in animal science teaching.


The supply of meat for humans has developed from the primitive game hunting of our forefathers to modern animal husbandry. (NERDIC 1991) states that the science of animal production requires that the agricultural teachers of animal science in our secondary school have at least basic knowledge of the structure and functions of the various organs that make up the body of farm animals.

It is a generally accepted fact that animals and their products are the richest sources of protein in our diet, and therefore the need to carefully study the scientific decline in this important part of agricultural science is not overstated (Akinsemni 1999).

The WAEC high school exam has made it clear that one of the following animals, e.g. Poultry, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle or rabbits should be set up in schools that have candidates for agricultural exams.

It is therefore imperative that qualified and very experienced agricultural science teachers are needed to achieve the goal of teaching at school. Most of the candidates proposed for the above tests do not perform well in animal science or agricultural science. This was demonstrated in the West African Examination Council (WAEC) (2008) report on student performance in animal science.

Poor student performance in animal science components of the WAEC exam indicates that agricultural science teachers are not adequately equipped with the skills or competencies required to teach animal science units. Some of the teachers may have acquired the skills, but cannot demonstrate them in the classroom.

Others lack some basic teaching skills that may be required to be used by agricultural science teachers in animal science teaching to be effective. As a result, they are unable to demonstrate the skills acquired in their respective schools during training.


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