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From a physiological point of view, ovulation is the process of maturation of the egg, its release into the fallopian tube and movement towards the uterus. In women of reproductive age, ovulation occurs monthly. In this case, isolated cases of lack of ovulation (1-2 times a year) are completely normal, even for a completely healthy woman. The older the fair sex, the more likely the onset of anovulatory (without maturation) cycles. In women over 45, ovulation occurs every few months. During menopause, egg maturation does not occur at all.
A few days before ovulation, the level of estrogen, follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones gradually increases in the blood. Approximately in the middle of the cycle, the follicle (egg cell surrounded by several protective layers) matures and bursts, and the egg cell comes out of it. To get into the fallopian tube, it will take from an hour to several hours, but her way to the uterus will take several days. It is during this period, called the ovulatory, the egg can be fertilized. If the process of conception has occurred, after about a week the fertilized egg will attach to the wall of the uterus. In other words, for couples planning to replenish their families, ovulation is the most favorable time for conception.
Sometimes the cycle can be anovulatory. The reasons for the lack of ovulation, there are quite a few. The most common cause is severe nervous tension and stress. Long flights, climate change and sudden changes in air temperature can slightly knock a cycle and affect the onset of ovulation. Sports associated with injuries (especially in the abdomen) and extreme physical exertion adversely affect women's health. Improper nutrition and lack of vitamins (in particular, folic acid) reduce the likelihood of egg maturation.
Healthy sperm are able to maintain their mobility in the body of a woman up to a couple of days. Therefore, to fertilize an egg, it is necessary to engage in unprotected sex 1-2 days before the expected ovulation date, on the day of ovulation and the day after. It is important that the male body takes some time to form new sperm and allow them to mature. Therefore, during pregnancy planning, sexual acts should occur no more often than every other day.
During ovulation, the body experiences a powerful hormonal shake. For many, it passes unnoticed, but if you watch your state for at least 2-3 cycles, then you can note patterns in your well-being and behavior.
One of the most recognized symptoms of ovulation is the presence of blood-bleeding secretions around the middle of the cycle. A follicle rupture may be accompanied by blotches of blood in typical secretions or scarce brown secretions as a result of endometrial detachment (uterine lining). Often, signs of ovulation are similar to feelings during menstruation. Discharge may be accompanied by slight pain in the abdomen and lower back. The nature of ovulatory pain is different for different representatives of the fair sex: it can be both pulling and piercing. The pains are so insignificant that the girls don’t pay attention to them at all.
Almost always, ovulation is accompanied by viscous mucous secretions, similar in consistency to egg white. At this time, cervical secretions contribute to the most comfortable intercourse and the rapid passage of the egg to the fallopian tube. In addition, the peak of hormones affects the behavior of women. At this time, biological instincts are aimed at the continuation of the genus, so that in ovulation there is increased sexual desire. Sometimes the representatives of the fair sex in this period of time and sharp mood swings are noticeable, which, again, is connected with the dancing level of hormones.
During this period, you can feel atypical ovulatory symptoms: mild nausea, headache, abdominal distension, too much appetite or lack of it. The body of each woman reacts to a surge of hormones in different ways. Noting the symptoms in a notebook, calendar, or special applications, you can identify individual manifestations of ovulatory syndrome in just a few cycles.
In theory, ovulation occurs in the middle of the cycle, so with a regular cycle it is easy to calculate the estimated day of maturation of the egg. For example, if the cycle stably lasts 30 days, then ovulation should occur on the 15th day from the end of the previous menstrual period and 15 days before the next. But this is all in theory. In practice, many gynecologists argue that the ideal terms of ovulation are extremely rare. It can occur even at the very beginning (one week after the menstruation period) and at the very end of the cycle (10-12 days before the next menstruation period), although with a lower probability.
This method of tracking ovulation is not entirely reliable, and finding the exact date of maturation of the egg using the calendar is quite difficult. It can only be used as an aid to other methods. For example, to know when to buy and use ovulation tests.
Basal body temperature is the temperature in the mouth, vagina or rectum in a state of complete rest. To track ovulation in this way, it is necessary to make a graph of basal body temperature from the very first day of the cycle. Immediately after waking up, trying not to move, you need to insert a thermometer into the vagina. It is best to use digital moisture-proof thermometers. The basal temperature rises during menstruation and during ovulation. During the period of maturation of the egg, a temperature jump of about half a degree should occur. At a rate of 36.7 in ovulation, the temperature will reach 37.1-37.2 degrees.
Mark the temperature every day in the calendar or notepad. Using special applications or tables, you can visualize the basal temperature graph, so that the jump can be seen as clearly as possible. After a few cycles, you will notice patterns, understand what the temperature for you is normal and what day from the beginning of the cycle ovulation occurs.
The easiest way to determine the date of ovulation, which, however, will require some financial costs – is to track ovulation with the help of special tests. Ovulation tests are normal stripes, which, unlike pregnancy tests, do not respond to the concentration of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), but to LH (luteinizing hormone).
The procedure for conducting an ovulation test is no different from conducting pregnancy tests. Fresh urine must be collected in a dry sterile container, unpack the test and lower it into liquid for about 5 seconds. However, it is necessary to carefully read the instructions on the package, as some tests need to be kept less or longer, and some do not require collecting urine into the container at all. The result is interpreted quite simply: if after a few minutes only one strip appeared on the test, this is not the day of ovulation. If there is a second bar, but pale – most likely, ovulation will occur in the coming days. A bright second bar is an accurate sign of ovulation.
So, there are several ways of tracking a favorable day for conceiving. For reliability, these methods can be combined. If you can not track ovulation within six months, you should contact your gynecologist. The most accurate results will show ultrasound.
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