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Download the complete project material Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Bridelia Ferruginea Bark Extracts from Chapters One to Five

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants are plants used for the treatment and prevention of certain human wastes and diseases. Therefore, the important role of medicinal plants in health care can not be overemphasized. Brideliaferruginea is an atropical medicinal plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, which is commonly used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of various diseases.

My research in this study focused on the bark of Bridelia Ferruginea to identify the drug responsible for the extraction of antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, GC-MS, AAS and biological activities were performed on the crude methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea.

Pytochemical screening for crude methanol extract indicates the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, resins and phlobatahine, while phytochemical screening for crude acetone extract indicates the presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatanine and reducing sugars. And the photochemical tests of hexane crude extract have consistently been negative. The isolation was carried out by means of column chromatography. AAS has been used to detect some heavy metals that are present in both the isolate and the raw material and may be toxic to human health, and GC-MS was used to determine the presence of unknown substances in the sample. Outcome for GC-MS showed the presence of seven compounds that are medicinal, viz[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)hexa-1,3,5-trienyl]Cyclohex-1-en-1-carboxaldehyde, limonene-6-ol, pivalate, 1-heptatriacotanol, benzene, 1-4-dicloro, cyclobarbital, 2-nonadecanone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, 1-monolinolylglyceroltrimethylsilyl ether. While two metals have been detected for AAS, iron (2.1 ppm) and zinc (0.05 ppm), which are not toxic to human consumption. Also the result of the antibacterial activities shows that Bridelia ferruginea was very susceptible to Escherichia coli and a high resistance to Proteus vulgaris.


CONTENTS

title page

certification

dedication

Knowledge

abstract

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 microorganisms

1.2 Classification of the microorganism

1.2.1 Bacteria

1.2.2 Virus

1.2.3 algae

1.2.4 mushrooms

1.2.5 Protozoa

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature overview

2.1 bacteria

2.2 Bacteria and their cells

2.3 Shape of the bacteria

2.4 Environmental effect of bacteria

2.5 medicinal plants

2.5.1 Characteristics of medicinal plants

2.6 Medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent

2.7 Why should medicinal plants be considered antimicrobial?

2.8 Botanical profile of Bridelia ferruginea

2.8.1 Taxonomy of the plant

2.8.2 System description

2.8.3 Properties

2.8.4 Information on cultivation

2.8.5 Edible uses

2.8.6 Medical use

2.8.7 Dissemination

2.9 Bridelia ferruginea as antimicrobial agent

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and Methods

3.1 Goals and goals

3.2 Materials

3.2.1 Chemicals, solvents and chemical reagents

3.2.2 Equipment and materials

3.3 Methods

3.3.1 Collection and preparation of plant material

3.3.2 Extraction of plant material

3.3.3 Phytochemical screening of methanol extract

3.3.4 Phytochemical screening of hexane extract

3.3.5 Phytochemical screening of acetone extract

3.4 thin-layer chromatography

3.5 Isolation and Characterization of the Crude Extract

3.5.1 Column chromatography

3.5.2 Mass of the fractions obtained from the column chromatography

3.6 Instrumentation Techniques

3.6.1 Sample analysis for GC-MS

3.6.2 Sample analysis for AAS

3.7 Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea

3.7.1 Method

3.8 Flow chart of the entire experiment conducted in this research

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 result and discussion

4.1 Result of the phytochemical analysis of methanol, N-hexane and acetone extract of Bidelia ferruginea

4.2 Instrumentation techniques

4.2.1 Result for GC-MS analysis

4.2.2 Result for the AAS analysis

4.3 Result antimicrobial activities

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

recommendation

reference

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 MICROORGANISM

A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism (too small to be seen by the naked human eye) [Delong et al 2001], Is a microscopic living organism that can be monocellular or multicellular. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology. This topic began with the discovery of microorganisms in 1674 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek using a microscope of his own design [Madigan M et al 2006],

Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa. This group also contains some types of fungi, algae and certain microscopic animals such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages.

Some microbiologists classify viruses as microorganisms, but others consider them non-living. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes of the last universal common ancestor of all life, including microorganisms that live on Earth [Madigan M et al 2006],

Microorganisms are often described as unicellular or unicellular organisms; However, some unicellular protists are visible to the human eye and some multicellular species are microscopic [Delong et al 2001],

Unicellular microorganisms were the first life forms on earth about 3 to 4 billion years ago. The further development proceeded slowly and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian age all organisms were microscopically small. For most of the history of life on Earth, microorganisms were the only life forms.

Bacteria, algae and fungi were detected in the 220 million year old amber. This shows that the morphology of the microorganisms has changed little since the Triassic period. [Madigan M et al 2006],

The concept of the microorganism blended the idea of ​​the microscopic and the smallest with the older idea of ​​an organism as a living entity or cell, and enabled a true assessment of the microbial world as one that can be studied even with similar tools and approaches, even though they have distinctly different types reproductive units and cell organizations [John A 2014],

1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISM

Microorganisms are found almost everywhere in the taxonomic organization of life on Earth. Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopically small, while some eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists, some fungi, and some animals and plants. Viruses are generally considered to be non-living and therefore not micro-organisms, although the field of microbiology also includes the study of viruses [Madigan M et al 2006],

1.2.1 BACTERIA

Bacteria form a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Bacteria are typically a few microns in length and have a variety of shapes ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first forms of life that occurred on Earth and are present in most of their habitats. Bacteria populate soil, water, acid hot springs, radioactive waste and the deep parts of the earth's crust [Rappe M.S 2003],

Most bacteria have not been characterized and only about half of the bacterial species have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology. There are about ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as human cells in the body, with the largest number of human flora in the intestinal flora and a large number on the skin.

The vast majority of bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, and some are beneficial. However, some bacterial species are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections. Tuberculosis alone kills around 2 million people a year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa [WHO 2002],

In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections as well as in agriculture, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. In industry, bacteria are important for wastewater treatment and oil spill degradation, fermentation of cheese and yoghurt, and recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology and the Internet. Production of antibiotics and other chemicals [Ishige T et al 2005],

1.2.2 VIRUS

ON virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only within the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.

Viruses spread in many ways. Viruses in plants are often transmitted by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; Viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. These pathogenic organisms are referred to as vectors. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Viruses have a wide variety of shapes and sizes morphologies, Viruses are generally much smaller than bacteria.

Most viruses examined have a diameter between 20 and 300 nanometers. Some filoviruses have a total length of up to 1400 nm. Their diameters are only about 80nm. Most viruses can not be seen with an optical microscope. Therefore, raster and transmission electron microscopes are used to visualize virions [Breitbart M et al 2005],

1.2.3 ALGAE

Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related and therefore not polyphyletic. Trapped organisms range from unicellular genera, such Chlorella and the diatoms too

Multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown algae that can grow up to 50 meters long. Most surface reactions and autotrophs lack many of the different cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, found in terrestrial plants.

The largest and most complex marine algae are called algae, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a distribution of green algae, for example Spirogyra and the stonewords. Most algae contain chloroplasts similar in structure to cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA such as cyanobacteria and presumably represent reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria [Allaby M. 1992],

1.2.4 FUNGI

Fungi are all members of a group of eukaryotic organisms, including organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more popular fungi. These organisms are classified as kingdom mushrooms, which are separated from the other eukaryotic life circles of plants and animals.

One feature that places fungi in a different kingdom than plants, bacteria and some protists is chitin in their cell wall. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs; They absorb their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment [Wikipedia 2016],

The mushrooms have several unicellular species, such as baker's yeast and fission yeast. Some fungi, such as the pathogenic yeast, can be phenotypically switched and grow as single cells in some environments and as filamentous hyphae in others [Madigan M et al 2006],

In addition to bacteria, fungi are responsible for the degradation and recycling of large quantities of complex organic matter. Part of it is returned to the atmosphere as CO2, while much is brought into a form that can be used by other organisms [john wiley et al 2005],

1.2.5 PROTOZOA

Protozoa are, as traditionally defined, mainly microscopic organisms with a size of 10 to 52 microns. Some, however, are considerably larger. Among the largest are the Xenophyophores living in the deep sea, single-celled for Aminifera, whose shells can reach a diameter of 20 cm. Free living forms are limited to humid environments such as soils, mosses and aquatic habitats, although many form cysts that survive drying.

Many protozoan species are symbionts, some parasites, and others are predators of bacteria, algae and other protozoa, which are protozoa that are defined as single animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors such as motility and predator.

The group was considered to be the zoological counterpart to the "protophytes", which were considered plant-like because they are capable of photosynthesis. The terms protozoa and protozoa Today, they are usually used informally to designate unicellular, non-photosynthetic protists such as the ciliates, amoebae, and flagellates.

The term protozoa was introduced in 1818 for a taxonomic class, but in later classification schemes the group was elevated to higher ranks, including the tribe, sub-kingdom, and kingdom [Protozoa 2006],

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