All parts of the spine are affected. Namely: cervical, thoracic and lumbar. During the disease, the cartilage is destroyed, after which microcracks form on it. In addition, it loses its former elasticity and elasticity. First there are protrusions (minor protrusions toward the spinal cord), then – intervertebral hernias (protrusions of large size, compressing the spinal cord).
The factors leading to the appearance of osteochondrosis include:
– unbalanced nutrition;
– excessive physical activity;
– lack of physical activity;
– hormonal failures;
– excess weight;
– wearing uncomfortable shoes;
– carrying bags on one shoulder;
– weak muscular skeleton;
– flat feet;
– heredity;  – stresses and nervous exhaustion;
– metabolic disorders;
– sleep on uncomfortable pillows and mattresses;
– professional sports activities.
Pathology is chronic, it periodically exacerbates , then fades out. Acute symptoms arise from excessive physical exertion, hypothermia, overfatigue.
Symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis: pain in the neck, in the hands. In addition, the patient feels numbness of the fingers, he is concerned with headaches. In the case of compression of the vertebral artery, the condition worsens: dizziness, nausea, and hearing deterioration. In this case, fainting is possible.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis of the thoracic region: acute or aching pain in the back, shortness of breath, tingling in the region of the heart.
Pain in lumbar osteochondrosis is localized in the lumbar region, sacrum and legs. During movement, the symptoms intensify. In some cases, there are problems with the genitourinary system (urination disorders, unpleasant sensations).
With the onset of remission, pain is less pronounced and occurs under the influence of provoking factors.
Treatment depends on severity. It can be non-drug, medicamental and surgical.
In the initial stages, non-pharmacological methods are preferred:
– therapeutic gymnastics;
– phytopreparations ;
– laser therapy.
If there are pronounced pain sensations and significant changes in the vertebrae, osteoporosis medications come to the rescue.
Surgical intervention in osteochondrosis is an extreme measure. The operations are performed in the presence of a hernia more than 1 cm.