The main distinguishing feature of the hip roof is the presence of two short stingrays where the gable roof has gables. It is these elements that are actually called hips. The roofing system of such roofs is assembled according to a special, rather complicated technology.
What is a hip roof
The elements of the roof construction of this type are:
- ridge run,
- ordinary and diagonal rafters ;
- racks and struts;
Mauerlat when assembling the hip roof correctly stacked around the perimeter of the walls. Diagonally called corner rafters, which are the skeletons of short skates of such a roof. Narovniki are short rafters connecting diagonal rafters with mauerlatom.
Very often when assembling hip roofs, one more additional element is used – the wind beam. Such a board is installed diagonally directly on the rafters, on the slope that will most often be subjected to wind loads in the future.
What materials are required
In operation, the hip roof elements are exposed not only to a significant wind, but and snow loads. Therefore, for the assembly of such a roof, only the best quality materials should be used. To buy for installation of a roof of this version follows a bar and a board without knots with humidity no more than 12%. Before installing the roof, this material will not be superfluous additionally.
Also for the assembly of the hip roof, metal corners and plates, anchor bolts and other similar consumables will be needed. To ensure that the roof has lasted longer, it is better to purchase galvanized elements of this type for its erection.
A bar with a section of at least 100×150 mm is usually used for the manufacture of hood mauerlate. For rafters and skates, lumber 150х50 mm is most often used.
For boards of a hip roof it is possible to use a board with a cross section of 25×100 mm. Suitable for this purpose and material 25×150 mm. However, a wider board for the assembly of the lining of the hip roof is not recommended. Such material due to the negative effects of moisture over time can be severely wrinkled. As a result, the crate will have to be changed to a new one with the dismantling of the roofing material.
The actual roofing covering for the roof of this variety is allowed to use any. But of course, under the roofing material, the waterproofing film must be laid without fail. If desired, the hip roof, like any other, can be insulated using polystyrene foam or mineral wool.
Before proceeding with the erection of the roof of this variety, it is of course necessary to process the sawn timber obtained for the assembly of its rafters with antiseptic and fire-resistant wood means.
This element of the frame of the hip roof is laid on the waterproofing material. That is, the walls of the house must first be glued on top with strips of roofing material in two layers using bitumen mastic. Anchor for fastening the Mauerlatt is preferably embedded in the masonry even at the stage of erection of the building box.
The walls of the house usually have a greater thickness than that used for assembling the Mauerlat bar. In this case, this element of the rafter system is laid along the outer perimeter. That is, mount the Mauerlat on thick walls closer to the edge in the horizontal plane.
The ramp system of the hip roof exerts significant load on the walls of the house. Therefore, the mauerlat of such a roof is usually supplemented with one or two transverse puffs. Use for these elements the same beam as for the Mauerlate itself, and fasten them by means of corners, or by threading in the middle.
Setting the ridge
The assembly of the roof truss system itself begins with the installation of racks. In this case:
- mount the two outer racks, using the plumb and level;
- pull the cord between the struts;
- orienting the cord, mount the intermediate posts.
In the next stage, the racks are joined together by a ridge board. Further, regular rafters are installed along the long slopes of the roof.
For the construction of rafters and narodnikov during the erection of hip roof it is necessary to use special patterns made from a junk board. When using this technology, the supporting legs of the opposite rajids are absolutely identical in length, which makes it possible to assemble the most accurate and durable roof.
The rafters must be cut in such a way that the roof slopes subsequently protrude 40-50 cm beyond the walls of the building. This will in the future protect the facades of the house from rain and snow.
Rack under the ridge element in the assembly of hip roofs are usually installed on the joists. However, if desired, they can also be attached to the transverse tightenings of the Mauerlat.
The technology of fastening the rafters
In buildings constructed of bricks, blocks or concrete, the rafters to the Mauerlat are allowed to be fastened using conventional galvanized corners. When cutting in the rafters, the landing nests according to the shape of the Mauerlat bar are made.
On wooden walls, such elements are fixed by means of special fasteners-movable slides. The use of such devices allows to avoid deformation of the roof frame when the log is shrinking.
Over the ridge the rafters of the hip roof are in most cases connected in pairs with the undercut and are fastened together with steel galvanized plates. The skate itself is fastened with vertically placed bars on either side of each post.
If desired, the supporting legs of the hip roof can also be fastened directly to the ridge. In this case, corners are also used to fix the rafters.
Diagonal rafter fixing instruction
After the long rajet rafters are installed:
- mount a central rafter connecting the skate with the mauerlate to the center of the short wall of the house;
- install lateral diagonal rafters from the ridge to the corners of the building box;
- locksmiths are assembled.
If the four-pitched hip roof is large, diagonal rafters must always be fitted with struts. Under such elements in the corners of the building box between the adjacent beams of the Mauerlat in the horizontal plane, additional supports are stuffed. The resulting designs, similar to the inverted letter "T", are called sprigels.
Short skates are fastened directly between diagonal rafters and mauerlat. Fix them to the elements of the roof structure with corners.
At the top, the diagonal rafters are cut by an angle and fastened to one knot with a pair of extreme rafters. At the junction of the supporting legs of the long skates, the fixing board-surf is pre-packed. Underneath it, a landing nest is cut in each diagonal rafter.
The next stage of assembling the frame of the hip roof, if necessary, mounts the windboard. Complete the installation of the roofing system of such a roof by installing a cornice board.
Mounting the roofing material step by step
The "pie" of the hip roof of the private house is assembled as follows:
- marking out the dormer windows, the outlet of the chimney and the ventilation shaft, if necessary;  from the inside, on the side of the attic, the vapor barrier film is pulled onto the rafters;
- also fixing the wire to support the heater from the side of the future attic;
- inserts between the rafters slabs of mineral wool voraspora, by matching them properly
- a waterproofing foil is laid over the heater without interference,
- the lathing for the roofing material is topped up.
The step between the elements of the lining of the hip roof depends on the configuration of the selected roofing material. Under flexible roofing tile or roofing felt on roofs of this type, it is necessary to mount a continuous crate, for example, from a sheet of OSB.
After the lining of the hip roof is packed, you can proceed with the actual installation of the cladding material itself. Ruberoid on the slopes of such roofs are fixed in the usual way to bituminous mastic, metal tiles to self-tapping screws, slate to nails.
When using metal roofing and a profiled sheet, the diagonal rafters of the hip roof can be covered with the same elements used for skating. In this case, the finished roof will look very attractive and aesthetic.